1. I will not tolerate that sort ofbehavior in my class
2. The law carries a penalty of up to three years inprison.
3. These products are inferior to those we bought last year.
A. poor than
B. narrower than
C. larger than
D. richer than
4. The organization was bold enough to facethe press.
5. The political situation in the region has deterioratedrapidly.
6. Most people find rejection hard to accept.
7. They’re petitioning for better facilitiesfor the disabled on public transport.
8. He said some harsh words about his brother.
9. I realized to my horror that I had forgotten the present.
10. There was a simultaneous trial takingplace in the next building.
11. He tried to assemble his thoughts.
12. The doctors did not reveal the truth to him.
13.Prisoners were kept in the most appalling conditions.
14.We were attractedby the lure of quick money.
15. She’s extremely competentand industrious.
A. hard working
ADHD Linked toAir Pollutants
Children have an increased risk of attentionproblems，seenas early as grade school , if their moms inhaled(吸入)a certain type of air pollution when they were pregnant. That's thefinding of a new study. Released when things aren't burned completely, thispollution is known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs. The biggestsources of these PAHs: the burning of fossil fuels, wood and trash.
Frederica Perera works at Columbia University'sMailman School of Public Health in New York City. She researches how exposureto things in the environment affects children's health. In a new study , sheand her team studied the exposure to air pollution of 233 nonsmoking pregnantwomen in New York City. Because burning tobacco can spew(排放) PAHs into the air and lungs, Perera's teamfocused on nonsmokers. The researchers wanted to probe(探查) other sources of PAHs, ones that would havebeen hard for an individual to avoid.
The team started by testing the blood of eachwoman during pregnancy. The reason: Any PAHs in a woman's blood would also beavailable to the baby in her womb. Nine years later, the researchers investigatedsigns of attention problems in these children, now age 9. They asked eachchild's mother a series of questions. These included whether her child hadproblems doing things that needed sustained(长期的) mental effort, such as homework or games with friends. The scientistsalso asked if the kids had trouble following instructions or made frequent,careless mistakes. All of these can be symptoms of a disorder called AttentionDeficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD. About one in 10 U.S. children hasADHD.
Among the women studied, traffic and homeheating were the primary sources of air pollution exposure, Perera and her teamsuspect. Some of these women had low levels of PAHs in their blood. Others hadhigh levels. Those with high levels were five times as likely to have childrenwho showed attention problems by age 9. The new findings were publishedNovember 5 in the journal PLOS ONE.
16. Perera and her team chose nonsmoking pregnant women all over America.
C. Not mentioned
17. The main purpose of the research was to find out how exposure to PAHsplayed a role in harming the subjects' physical health.
C. Not mentioned
18. Nonsmoking mothers were selected because the effect of smoking onPAHs was unclear.
C. Not mentioned
19. The blood of each women was tested once a month during pregnancy.
C. Not mentioned
20. Kids with ADHD commonly fail in school.
C. Not mentioned
21. The women with high levels of PAHs in their blood were more likely tohave kids with ADHD.
C. Not mentioned
22. Traffic and home heating were considered to be the biggest sources ofPAHs for the subjects in the research.
C. Not mentioned
First Image-recognition Software
1. Dartmouth researchers and their colleagues havecreated an artificial Intelligence, software that uses photos to locate documentson the Internet with far greater than ever before.
2.The new system, which was tested on photos and is nowbeing applied to videos, shows for the first time that a machine learningalgorithm (运算法则) for image recognition and retrieval is accurate andefficient enough to improve large-scale , document searches online. The systemuses pixel (像素)data in images and potentially video — rather than justtext — to locate documents. It learns to recognize the pixels associated with asearch phrase by studying the results from text-based image search engines. Theknowledge gleaned (收集) from those results can then be applied to other photoswithout tags or captions making for more accurate document search results.
3."Over the last 30 years," says AssociateProfessor Lorenzo Torresani, a co-author of the study, "the Web hasevolved from a small collection of mostly text documents to a modern, massive,fast-growing multimedia dataset, where nearly every page includes multiple picturesor videos. When a person looks at a Web page, he immediately gets the gist (主旨)of it by looking at thepictures in it. Yet, surprisingly, all existing popular search engines, such asGoogle or Bing, strip away the information contained in the photos and useexclusively the text of Web pages to perform the document retrieval. Our studyis the first to show that modern machine vision systems are accurate andefficient enough to make effective use of the information contained in imagepixels to improve document search."
4.The researchers designed and tested a machine visionsystem — a type of artificial intelligence that allows computers to learnwithout being explicitly programmed — that extracts semantic (语义的) information fromthe pixels of photos in Web pages. This information is used to enrich the descriptionof the HTML page used by search engines for document retrieval. The researcherstested their approach using more than 600 search queries (查询)on a database of 50million Web pages. They selected the text-retrieval search engine with the bestperformance and modified it to make use of the additional semantic informationextracted by their method from the pictures of the Web pages. They found thatthis produced a 30 percent improvement in precision over the original searchengine purely based on text.
A. Popularity of the new system
B. Publication of the new discovery
C. Function of the new system
D. Artificial intelligence software created
E. Problems of the existing search engines
F. Improvement in document retrieval
23. Paragraph 1 __D__
24. Paragraph 2 __C__
25. Paragraph 3 __E__
26. Paragraph 4 __F__
A. information in images
B. current popular search engines
C. using photos
D. machine vision systems
E. document search
F. description of the HTML page
27. The new system does document retrieval by __C__.
28. The new system is expected to improve precision in __E__.
29. When performing document retrieval the existing search engines ignore__A__
30. The new system was found more effective in documentsearch than the __B__
Dangers AwaitBabies with Altitude
Women who live in theworld's highest communities tend to give birth to underweight babies, a newstudy suggests. These babies may grow into adults with a high risk of heartdisease and strokes.1
Research has hinted thatnewborns in mountain communities are lighter than average. But it wasn't clearwhether this is due to reduced oxygen levels at high altitudes or because theirmothers are under-nourished — many people who live at high altitudes are relatively poor compared withthose living lower down.
To find out more, DinoGiussani and his team at Cambridge University studied the records of 400 birthsin Bolivia during 1997 and 1998.The babies were born in both rich and poorareas of two cities: La Paz and Santa Cruz. La Paz is the highest city in theworld, at 3.65 kilometers above sea level, while Santa Cruz is much lower, at0.44 kilometers.
Sure enough, Giussani foundthat the average birth weight of babies in La Paz was significantly lower thanin Santa Cruz. This was true in both high and low-income families. Even babiesborn to poor families in Santa Cruz were heavier on average than babies born towealthy families in lofty La Paz."We were very surprised by this result，" says Giussani.
The results suggest thatbabies born at high altitudes are deprived of2 oxygen before birth."Thismay trigger the release or suppression of hormones that regulate growth of theunborn child，3"says Giussani.
His team also found thathigh-altitude babies tended to have relatively larger heads compared with theirbodies4.This is probably because a fetus starved of oxygen will send oxygenatedblood to the brain in preference to the rest of the body.
Giussani wants to find outif such babies have a higher risk of disease in later life. People born in LaPaz might be prone to heart trouble in adulthood, for example. Low birth weightis a risk factor for coronary heart disease. And newborns with a high ratio ofhead size to body weight are often predisposed to high blood pressure andstrokes in later life.
31. What does the new study discover?
A. Babies born to wealthy families are heavier
B. Women living at high altitudes tend to give birthto underweight babies
C. Newborns in cities are lighter than average
D. Low-altitude babies have a high risk of heart disease in later life
32. Giussan and his team are sure that ______
A. babies born in La Paz are on average lighter thanin Santa Cruz
B. people living in La Paz are poorer that those in Santa Cruz
C. the birthweight of babies born to wealthy families is above averge
D. mothers in La Paz are commonly under-nourished
33. It can be inferred from what Giussan says in Paragraph 4 that
A. he was very tired
B. the study took longer than expected
C. the finding was unexpected
D. he was surprised to find low-income families in La Paz
34. The results of the study indicate the reason for the birth ofunderweight babies
A. lack of certain nutrition
B. reduction of oxygen levels
C. poverty of their mothers
D. different family background
35. It can be learnt from the last paragraph that ______
A. underweight babies have a shorter life span
B. babies born to poor families lack certain hormones before birth.
C. high-altitude babies tend to have high blood pressure in their laterlife
D. newborns in wealthy families have larger heads compared with theirbodies
Why BuyShade-Grown Coffee?
When people argue about whether coffee is goodfor health, they're usually thinking of the health of the coffee drinker. Is itfood for your heart? Does it increase blood pressure? Does it help youconcentrate? However, coffee affects the health of the human population inother ways, too.
Traditionally, coffee bushes were planted underthe canopy(树冠)oftaller indigenous(土生土长的)trees.However, more and more farmers in Latin America are deforesting the land togrow full-sun coffees. At first, this increases production because more coffeebushes can be planted if there aren’t any trees. With increased production comeincreased profits.
Unfortunately, deforesting for coffeeproduction immediately decreases local-wildlife habitat. Native birds nest andhide from predators(捕食者)inthe tall trees and migrating birds rest there.
Furthermore, in the long term, the full-sunmethod also damages the ecosystem because more chemical fertilizers andpesticides are needed to grow the coffee. The fertilizers and pesticides killinsects that eat coffee plant, but then the birds eat the poisoned insects andalso die. The chemicals kill or sicken other animals as well, and can evenenter the water that people will eventually drink.
Fortunately, farmers in Central and SouthAmerica are beginning to grow more coffee bushes in the shade. We can supportthese farmers by buying coffee with such labels as "shade grown" and"bird friendly." Sure, these varieties might cost a little more. Butwe're paying for the health of the birds, the land, ourselves, and the planet.I think it's worth it.
36. What is the main idea of this passage?
A. People should buy shade-grown coffee.
B. Farmers are changing the way they grow coffee.
C. Coffee is becoming more expensive to produce.
D. Shade-grow coffee is more expensive than sun-grow coffee.
37. The function of the word "Traditionally" in Paragraph 2 isto show_____.
A. how coffee production used to be
B. the positive effects of coffee
C. a change of coffee growth
D. something that is the most important
38. What does increased production of full-sun coffee bring about?
A. Higher profits.
B. More insects.
C. Better quality coffee.
D. Larger farms.
39. How do farmers find more land for growing full-sun coffee?
A. They buy more land from other farmers.
B. They move to another country.
C. They cut down trees.
D. They turn grassland into farmland.
40. The full-sun method may affect the following EXCEPT_____
More RuralResearch Is Needed
Agricultural researchfunding is vital if the world is to feed itself better than it does now. Dr.Tony Fischer, crop scientist, said demand was growing at 2.5% per year, butwith modern technologies and the development of new ones, the world should beable to stay ahead.
“The global decline in investment ininternational agricultural research must be reversed if significant progress isto be made towards reducing malnutrition and poverty,” he said.
Research is needed to solvefood production, land degradationand environmental problems. Securelocal food supplies led to economic growth which, in turn, slowedpopulation growth. Dr. Fischer painted a picture of the world’s ability to feeditself in the first 25 years, when the world’s population is expected to risefrom 5.8 to 8 billion people. He said that things will probably hold or improvebut there’ll still be a lot of hungry people. The biggest concentrationof poor and hungry people would be in sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia in2020, similar to the current pattern. If there is any change, a slightimprovement will be seen in southern Asia, but not in sub-Saharan Africa. Themajor improvement will be in East Asia, South America and South-East Asia.
The developing world wasinvesting about 0.5%, or $8 billion a year, of its agricultural gross domesticproduct（GDP）on research, and the developedworld was spending 2.5% of its GDP. Dr. Fischer said more was needed from allcountries.
He said crop research couldproduce technologies that spread across many countries, such as wheatproduction research having spin-offs for Mexico, China or India.
“Technologies still need to be refined for thelocal conditions but a lot of the strategic research can have global application,so that money can be used very efficiently,” Dr. Fischer said.
Yields of rice, wheat andmaize have grown impressively in the past 30 years, especially in developingcountries. For example, maize production rose from 2-8 tonnes per hectarebetween 1950 and 1995. But technologies driving this growth, such as high-yieldvarieties, fertilisers, and irrigation, were becoming exhausted. “If you wantto save the land for non-agricultural activities, for forests and wildlife,you’re going to have to increase yield,” Dr. Fischer said.
41. What is the passage mainly about?
A. Shortage of agricultural technologies
B. Development of agricultural technologies
C. Importance of agricultural research
D. Expectation of population growth
42. Which of the following statements is true about the word’sagricultural research funding?
A. It is increasing among developed countries
B. It is decreasing worldwide
C. Less is demand from developing countries
D. Most of it is spend very efficiently
43. What is the picture of Asia’s food supplies in the first 25 years?
A. Food shortage will not be a problem
B. These will be more hungry people in southern Asia
C. Population growth will result in more hungrypeople
D. There will be fewer hungry people in East Asia.
44. What does Dr. Fischer say about technologies?
A. They are costly
B. They have to be improved to meet local needs
C. Their application is limited
D. They have to be applied locally
45. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that ______
A. There is a demand for saving land fornon-agricultural activities
B. Crop production is growing faster in developing countries
C. Maize production reached its peak in the 1990s
D. Technologies improving maize production have been well developed
Saving a City's Public Art
Avoiding traffic jams in Los Angeles may beimpossible, but the city's colorful freeway murals（壁画）can brighten even the worst commute. Paintingsthat depict（描述）famouspeople and historical scenes cover office buildings and freeway walls allaccess the city. With a collection of more than 2,000 murals, Los Angeles isthe unofficial mural capital of the world.
But the combination of graffiti（涂鸦）,pollution, and hot sun has left many L.A.murals in terrible condition. __C___（46）in the past, experts say, little attention was given to caring for publicart. Artists were even expected to maintain their own works, not an easy taskwith cars racing by along the freeway.
__F___（47）The work started in 2003. So far,16 walls have been selected and more maybe added later.
Until about 1960, public murals in Los Angeleswere rare. But in the 1960s and 1970s,young L.A. artists began to study early20th-century Mexican mural painting ___B__（48）
The most famous mural in the city is JudithBaca's "The Great Wall," a 13-foot-high（4-meter-high）paintingthat runs for half a mile （0.8 kilometer）in North Hollywood, ___A__（49）it took eight years to complete—400 underprivileged teenagers painted the designs—and is probably the longest mural in the world.
One of the murals that will be restored now isKent Twitchell's "Seventh Street Altarpiece." which he painted forthe Los Angeles Olympics in 1984. __E__ （50）Twitchell said, "it was meant as a kind of gateway through which thetraveler to L.A. must drive. The open hands represent peace."
Artists often call murals the people's art.Along a busy freeway or hidden in a quiet neighborhood, murals can teach peoplewho would never pay money to see fine art in a museum," Murals give avoice to the silent majority," said one artist.
A. The mural represents the history of ethnic groups in California.
B. Artists like murals because they like the work of Mexican artists.
C. The city trying to stop the spread of graffiti, has painted over some of the murals complete.
D. Soon, their murals became a symbol of the city's cultural expressions and a showcase for L.A.'s cultural diversity.
E. This striking work depicts two people facing each other on opposite sides of the freeway near downtown Los Angeles.
F. Now the city is beginning a huge project to restore the city's murals.
I'll Be Bach
Composer David Cope is the inventor of acomputer program that writes original works of classical music. It took Cope 30years to develop the software. Now most people can't _______ (51) thedifference between music by the famous German composer J. S. Bach (1685-1750)and the Bach-like compositions from Cope's computer.
It all started in 1980 in the United States,when Cope was trying to write an opera. He was having _______ (52) thinking ofnew melodies, so he wrote a computer program to create the melodies. At firstthis music was not _______ (53) to listen to. What did Cope do? He began torethink how human beings compose music. He realized that composers' brains _______(54) like big databases. First, they take in all the music that they have everheard. Then they take_______ (55) the music that they dislike. Finally, theymake new music from what is _______(56). According to Cope, only the great composers are able to create the databaseaccurately, remember it, and form new musical patterns from it.
Cope built a _______ (57) database of existingmusic. He began with hundreds of works by Bach. The software analyzed the data:it_______ (58) it down into smaller pieces and looked for patterns. It thencombined the _______ (59) into new patterns; before long, the program couldcompose short Bach-like works. They weren't good, but it was a start.
Cope knew he had more work to do-he had a wholeopera to write. He continued to improve the software. Soon it could _______(60) more complex music. He also added many other composers, including his ownwork, to the database.
A few years later, Cope's computer program,called "Emmy", was ready to help him with his opera. The _______ (61)required a lot of collaboration between the composer and Emmy. Cope listened tothe computer's musical ideas and used the _______ (62) that he liked. WithEmmy, the opera took only two weeks to finish. It was called Cradle Falling,and it was a great _______ (63)! Cope received some of the best reviews of hiscareer, but no one knew exactly _______ (64) he had composed the work.
Since that first opera, Emmy has writtenthousands of compositions. Cope still gives Emmy feedback on what he likes anddoesn't like of her music, _______ (65) she is doing most of the hard work ofcomposing these days!
51. ( )
A. make B. tell C.take D. understand
52. ( )
A. trouble B. time C. fear D. pleasure
53. ( )
A. loud B. peaceful C. classic D. easy
54. ( )
A. feel B. look C. sound D. work
55. ( )
A. in B. at C. with D. out
56. ( )
A. added B. left C.created D. released
57. ( )
A. small B. huge C. simple D. colorful
58. ( )
A. cut B. drop C. broke D. turned
59. ( )
A. parts B. programs C. ideas D. pieces
60. ( )
A. play B. hear C. collect D. analyze
61. ( )
A. stage B. process C. period D. application
62. ( )
A. ones B.cases C. others D. sides
63. ( )
A. loss B. end C. success D. rush
64. ( )
A. when B. how C. what D.why
65. ( )
A. but B. until C. so D. because