1. The weather last summer was awful.
2. The law carries a penalty of up to three years inprison.
3. My piano playing has improved significantly since Ihad a new teacher.
4. There is a need for radical changes in education.
5. It frustrates me that I’m not able to put any of my ideas into practice.
6. I realized to my horror that I had forgotten thepresent.
7. He tried to assemble his thoughts.
9. The doctors did not reveal the truth to him.
10. Railways are the most important mode of transportfor the economy.
11. He said some harsh words about his brother.
12. Under the terms of the contract, you must give 3months’ notice before you leave.
13. Don’t tempt thieves by leaving valuables clearlyvisible.
14. When did you first encounter these difficulties?
15. We need to identify the potential problems.
ADHD Linked toAir Pollutants
Children have an increased risk of attentionproblems，seenas early as grade school , if their moms inhaled(吸入)a certain type of air pollution when they were pregnant. That's thefinding of a new study. Released when things aren't burned completely, thispollution is known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs. The biggestsources of these PAHs: the burning of fossil fuels, wood and trash.
Frederica Perera works at Columbia University'sMailman School of Public Health in New York City. She researches how exposureto things in the environment affects children's health. In a new study , sheand her team studied the exposure to air pollution of 233 nonsmoking pregnantwomen in New York City. Because burning tobacco can spew(排放) PAHs into the air and lungs, Perera's teamfocused on nonsmokers. The researchers wanted to probe(探查) other sources of PAHs, ones that would havebeen hard for an individual to avoid.
The team started by testing the blood of eachwoman during pregnancy. The reason: Any PAHs in a woman's blood would also beavailable to the baby in her womb. Nine years later, the researchersinvestigated signs of attention problems in these children, now age 9. Theyasked each child's mother a series of questions. These included whether herchild had problems doing things that needed sustained(长期的) mental effort, such as homework or games withfriends. The scientists also asked if the kids had trouble followinginstructions or made frequent, careless mistakes. All of these can be symptomsof a disorder called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD. Aboutone in 10 U.S. children has ADHD.
Among the women studied, traffic and homeheating were the primary sources of air pollution exposure, Perera and her teamsuspect. Some of these women had low levels of PAHs in their blood. Others hadhigh levels. Those with high levels were five times as likely to have childrenwho showed attention problems by age 9. The new findings were publishedNovember 5 in the journal PLOS ONE.
16. Perera and her team chose nonsmoking pregnant women all over America.
C. Not mentioned
17. The main purpose of the research was to find out how exposure to PAHsplayed a role in harming the subjects' physical health.
C. Not mentioned
18. Nonsmoking mothers were selected because the effect of smoking onPAHs was unclear.
C. Not mentioned
19. The blood of each women was tested once a month during pregnancy.
C. Not mentioned
20. Kids with ADHD commonly fail in school.
C. Not mentioned
21. The women with high levels of PAHs in their blood were more likely tohave kids with ADHD.
C. Not mentioned
22. Traffic and home heating were considered to be the biggest sources ofPAHs for the subjects in the research.
C. Not mentioned
New research lights the way to super-fast computers
1) New research published today in the journalNature Communications, has demonstrated how glass can be manipulated to createa material that will allow computers to transfer information using light. Thisdevelopment could significantly increase computer processing speeds and powerin the future.
2) The research by the University of Surrey, incollaboration with the University of Cambridge and the University ofSouthampton, has found it is possible to change the electronic properties ofamorphous chalcogenides, a glass material integral to data technologies such asCDs and DVDs. By using a technique called ion doping, the team of researchershave discovered a material that could use light to bring together differentcomputing functions into one component, leading to all-optical systems.
3) Computers currently use electrons totransfer information and process applications. On the other hand, data sourcessuch as the internet rely on optical systems; the transfer of information usinglight. Optical fibres are used to send information around the world at thespeed of light, but these signals then have to be converted to electricalsignals once they reach a computer, causing a significant slowdown inprocessing.
4) "The challenge is to find a singlematerial that can effectively use and control light to carry information arounda computer. Much like how the web uses light to deliver information, we want touse light to both deliver and process computer data," said project leader,Dr Richard Curry of the University of Surrey.
5)"This has eluded researchers fordecades, but now we have now shown how a widely used glass can be manipulatedto conduct negative electrons, as well as positive charges, creating what areknown as 'pn-junction' devices. This should enable the material to act as a lightsource, a light guide and a light detector - something that can carry andinterpret optical information. In doing so, this could transform the computersof tomorrow, allowing them to effectively process information at much fasterspeeds."
6) The researchers expect that the results ofthis research will be integrated into computers within ten years. In the shortterm, the glass is already being developed and used in next-generation computermemory technology known as CRAM, which may ultimately be integrated with theadvances reported.
A. Expectation of the discovery
B. the problem of current computers
C. A new finding
D. The purpose of the research
E. Public reaction to the discovery
F. The use of the new material
23. Paragraph 2 __C___
24. Paragraph 3 __B___
25. Paragraph 4 __D___
26. Paragraph 5 __F___
A. optical information
B. processing speeds
D. positive charges
E. data technologies
F. all-optical systems
27. The result of the research can help computers to increase __B___
28. Current computers transfer information using __C___
29. The new glass material makes it possible to fulfill differentcomputing function __D___
30. Glass is used in the research to carry and process ___A__
Why BuyShade-Grown Coffee?
When people argue about whether coffee is goodfor health, they're usually thinking of the health of the coffee drinker. Is itfood for your heart? Does it increase blood pressure? Does it help youconcentrate? However, coffee affects the health of the human population inother ways, too.
Traditionally, coffee bushes were planted underthe canopy(树冠)oftaller indigenous(土生土长的)trees.However, more and more farmers in Latin America are deforesting the land togrow full-sun coffees. At first, this increases production because more coffeebushes can be planted if there aren’t any trees. With increased production comeincreased profits.
Unfortunately, deforesting for coffeeproduction immediately decreases local-wildlife habitat. Native birds nest andhide from predators(捕食者)inthe tall trees and migrating birds rest there.
Furthermore, in the long term, the full-sunmethod also damages the ecosystem because more chemical fertilizers andpesticides are needed to grow the coffee. The fertilizers and pesticides killinsects that eat coffee plant, but then the birds eat the poisoned insects andalso die. The chemicals kill or sicken other animals as well, and can evenenter the water that people will eventually drink.
Fortunately, farmers in Central and SouthAmerica are beginning to grow more coffee bushes in the shade. We can supportthese farmers by buying coffee with such labels as "shade grown" and"bird friendly." Sure, these varieties might cost a little more. Butwe're paying for the health of the birds, the land, ourselves, and the planet.I think it's worth it.
31. What is the main idea of this passage?
A. Farmers are changing the way they grow coffee.
B. Coffee is becoming more expensive to produce.
C. Shade-grow coffee is more expensive than sun-grow coffee.
D. People should buy shade-grown coffee.
32. The function of the word "Traditionally" in Paragraph 2 isto show_____.
A. the positive effects of coffee.
B. a change of coffee growth.
C. something that is the most important.
D. how coffee production used to be.
33. What does increased production of full-sun coffee bring about?
A. More insects.
B. Better quality coffee.
C. Larger farms.
D. Higher profits.
34. How do farmers find more land for growing full-sun coffee?
A. They buy more land from other farmers.
B. They cut down trees.
C. They move to another country.
D. They turn grassland into farmland.
35. The full-sun method may affect the following EXCEPT_____
Soot(煤烟灰)and Snow: a HotCombination
New research from NASA scientists suggestsemissions of black soot after the way sunlight reflects off snow. According toa computer simulation, black soot may be responsible for 25 percent of observedglobal warming over the past century.
Soot in the higher latitudes(维度)of the Earth, where ice is more common,absorbs more of the sun's energy and warmth than an icy, white background.Dark-colored black carbon, or soot, absorbs sunlight, while lighter colored icereflects sunlight.
Soot in areas with snow and ice may play animportant role in climate change. Also, if snow and ice covered areas beginmelting, the warming effect increase, as the soot becomes more concentrated onthe snow surface."This provides a positive feedback, as glaciers and icesheets melt, they tend to get even dirtier." said Dr. James Hansen, aresearcher at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York.
Hansen found soot's effect on snow albedo(solarenergy reflected back to space), which may be contributing to trends towardearly springs in the Northern Hemisphere, such as thinning Arctic sea ice andmelting glaciers permafrost. Soot also is believed to play a role in changes inthe atmosphere above the oceans and land.
"Black carbon reduces the amount of energyreflected by snow back into space, thus heading the snow surface more than ifthere were no black carbon, " Hansen said. Soot's increased absorption ofsolar energy is especially effective in warming the world's climate." Thisforcing is unusually effective, causing twice as much global warming as acarbon-dioxide forcing of the same magnitude." Hansen noted.
Hansen cautioned, although the role of soot inaltering global climate is substantial, it does not alter the fact thatgreenhouse gases are the primary cause of climate warming during the pastcentury. Such gases are expected to be the largest climate forcing for the restof the century.
The researchers found that observed warming inthe Northern Hemisphere was large in the winter and spring at middle and highlatitudes. These observations were coherent with the researchers' climate modelsituations, which showed some of the largest warming effects occurred whenthere were heavy snow cover and sufficient sunlight.
36. Which of the following statements of soot is NOT true?
A. It absorbs sun's heat.
B. It is responsible for climate change.
C. It reflects sunlight.
D. It may account for a quarter of global warming over the past century.
37. Which of the following areas shows a greater warming effect?
A. Ice sea areas.
B. Areas with black carbon.
C. Areas covered with white snow.
D. Melting glaciers.
38. "This forcing" in Paragraph 5 refers to?
A. sun's heating on snow surface.
B. soot's increased absorption of solar energy.
C. carbon-dioxide's warming effect.
D. snow's increased reflection of sunlight.
39. What is the main cause of climate warming during the past century?
C. Greenhouse gases.
40. The largest warming effects happened in the Northern Hemisphere with
A. X sea ice and insufficient sunlight.
B. light snow cover and sufficient sunlight.
C. heavy snow cover and sufficient sunlight.
D. thick sea ice and insufficient sunlight.
NASA’s Mars rover Opportunity has boldly gonewhere no rover has gone before—at least in terms of distance. Since arriving on the Red Planet in 2004,Opportunity has traveled 25.01 miles, more than any other wheeled vehicle hason another world.
On July 27, after years of moving about onMartian ground, the golf-cart-sized Opportunity had driven more than 24 miles,beating the previous record holder—a Soviet rover sent to the moon in 1973.
“This is so remarkable considering Opportunitywas intended to drive about 1 kilometer and was never designed for distance,” says John Callas, the Mars Exploration RoverProject Manager.
He works at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory inPasadena, California. “Butwhat is really importantly is not how many miles the rover has racked up, buthow much exploration and discovery we have accomplished over that distance.”
The solar-powered Opportunity and its twinrover, Spirit, landed on Mars 10 years ago on a mission expected to last 3months. The objective of the rovers was to help scientists learn more about theplanet and to search for signs of life，such as the possible presence of water.
Spirit stopped communicating with Earth inMarch 2010, a few months after it got stuck in a sand pit. But Opportunity hascontinued to collect and analyze Martian soil and rocks.
During its mission, Opportunity has captured,and sent back to Earth, some 187,000 panoramic and microscopic images of Marswith its cameras. It has also provided scientists with data on the planet’s atmosphere, soil, rocks, and terrain.
The rover doesn’t seem to be ready to stop justyet. If Opportunity can continue on, it will reach another major investigationsite when its odometer hits 26.2 miles. Scientists call this site MarathonValley, because when the rover reaches the area, it will have traveled the samedistance as the length of a marathon since its arrival on Mars.
Researchers believe that clay minerals exposednear Marathon Valley could hold clues to Mars’s ancient environment1.Opportunity’s continuing travels will also help researchers as they plan for aneventual human mission to the Red Planet.
41. Opportunity is a record breaking rover in the sense of_____.
A. how long is has stayed in space
B. how far it has traveled
C. how much investment it has involved
D. how many facilities it has been equipped with
42. What does John Callas say about Opportunity’s long distance travel?
A. It hasn’t met scientists’ expectation yet
B. It hasn’t been appreciated appropriately
C. It is secondary to what has been discovered
D. It is what scientists have been aiming at
43. One of the objectives of sending Opportunity and Spirit is to_____.
A. collect soil and send back to Earth
B. develop multinational space exploration
C. test how well solar-powered rovers work in outer space
D. look for the possible presence of life
44. Which of the following statements is true of Opportunity?
A. It will come back to earth soon.
B. Another rover will be sent to replace it.
C. It is travelling to ...... (后面的内容不清楚，但是其他选项都是错的)
D. It will work with other rovers exploring Mars
Wadi Rum is the name given to a valley cut intothe sandstone and hard rock in southwest Jordan. ____A_____(46)The name Rum most likely comes from an Aramaic word meaning “high” or “elevated”, The area around Wadi Rum is now also one ofJordan’s most important tourist destinations, and attracts an increasing numberof foreign tourists, particularly trekkers(越野者)，butalso for camel safaris(旅行) or simply day-trippers from Aqaba or Petra. In contrast, there arealmost no local or Arab tourists through nearby disi attracts young people fromAmman at the weekends.
Popular activities in the desert environmentinclude camping under the stars, riding Arab horses, and rock-climbing amongstthe massive rock formations. Jebal Rum (Jebal means mountain) is 1,574 metresabove sea level. ____B_____(47)
But Jordan is not simply a desertenvironment-----it also contains the area which is the lowest point to the faceof the Earth----the incredible Dead Sea, popular with tourists for swimming. _____C____(48) Once the waters reach the Dead Sea they are landlockedand have nowhere to go, so they evaporate, leaving behind a dense, richcocktail(混合的)of salts and minerals that supply industry, agriculture and medicine with someof its finest products. Once again, tourists benefit and can participate inwater spa treatments and water therapies.
The Dead Sea is located in the syro-AfricanRift, a 4,000-mile fault line in the Earth’s crust. The lowest point of dry land on Earth is the shoreline of theDead Sea at 1,300 feet below sea level. Because the lake is at the lowestpoint, this means that water does not drain from it. ____E_____(49) Figures for the Dead Sea’s salinity(盐度) today range from 25% to 35%.
But the greatest tourist attraction is theincredible city of Petra. _____D____(50) It is avast unique city, carved into the sheer rock face by the Nabataeans, anindustrious Arab people who settled here more than 2,000 years ago, turing itinto an important junction for the silk, spice and other trade routes thatlinked China India and southern Arabia with Egypt, Syria, Greece and Rome.Today, visitors can marvel at the architecture and explore life as it wasthousands of years ago.
A. It is the largest wadi (riverbed) in Jordan.
B. It is the second highest peak in Jordan, rising directly above the Rum valley opposite Jebal Urn Ishrin.
C. This vast stretch of water receives a number of incoming rivers, including the River Jordan.
D. The area has been used as a background setting in a number of films.
E. Every day seven million tons of water evaporate from the lake, but the minerals remain causing the salt content to increase.
F. It is without doubt Jordan’s most valuable treasure.
In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks onthe World Trade Center, security experts are trying to develop new ways ofrescuing people from burning skyscrapers. One _______ (51) is a platformcapable of flying vertically and hovering in the air _______ (52)a helicopter.The platform would rise up and down alongside a skyscraper and pick up people_______ (53) in high stories.
The idea for the vertical takeoff platform washatched(策划)more than ten years ago by a Russian aerospace engineer, David Metreveli, whohas since moved to Israel. Metreveli's design, _______ (54) the Eagle, callsfor two jet engines that_______ (55) four large horizontal propellers. Thespinning of the propellers _______ (56) the necessary lift, or upward force, toraise the platform. The more _______ (57) is supplied to the propellers, thehigher the platform _______ (58). Moving the platform sideways involves _______(59) differing amounts of power to each propeller.
Helicopters are now used in some _______ (60)to get people out of burning buildings. Escape baskets slung from them danglebeside the building for people to climb into. _______ (61), the baskets cannotreach every floor of a building_______ (62) the ropes from which they hangbecome unstable _______(63) a certain length.
So far, Metreveli has built a small-scale modelof the Eagle to _______ (64) his idea. In the wake of September 11, he has beenable to secure enough funding to start building a larger, 4-meter by 4-meterprototype, _______ (65) he calls the Eaglet.
51. ( )
A. idea B. skill C. building D. improvement
52. ( )
A. silks B. unlike C. like D. likely
53. ( )
A. B. trapped C. climbed D. raised
54. ( )
A. linked B. called C.equaled D. described
55. ( )
A. change B. move C. turn D.shut
56. ( )
A. sends B. keeps C. opens D. generates
57. ( )
A. power B. sense C. feature D. model
58. ( )
A. stays B. rises C. stars D. runs
59. ( )
A. reducing B. comparing C. developing D. applying
60. ( )
A. kinds B. cases C.stories D. products
61. ( )
A. Unfortunately B. Uncertainly C.Unimportantly D. Unexpectedly
62. ( )
A. before B. because C.until D. however
63. ( )
A. beyond B. under C. off D. on
64. ( )
A. tell B. test C. discuss D. report
65. ( )
A. who B. which C. where D. what