1. Different hypothesis have been put forwardto explain why UFOs exist.
2. She is a love gracious woman.
3. She hugged me like an old friend andinvited me to dinner the next day.
4. It was unfortunate that she had erased themessage.
A. heard of
B. looked at
C. spoken out
D. rubbed out
5. He never grumbled about workingovertime.
6. To start with we need to decide who will presideover the meeting
7. I must apologize for my outrageousbehavior.
8. I think she made a blunder by announcingit ahead of time.
9. He came back home, weary and fatigued.
10. I have to apologize for my abruptdeparture yesterday.
11. Hewas obsessed with American horror movies.
A. kept thinking about
B. took advantage of
C. paid no attention to
D. cared nothing about
12. Your accusation is wholly without foundation.
13. My room is really very cosy.
14. Some astronomers contend that theuniverse may be younger than previously believed.
15. The woman living next door is extremely slender.
One-Third of Parents Lack Factsabout Child Development
One-third of parents of babieshave a surprisingly low knowledge of child development includingbasic concepts about what their children should know or how they should act, anew study finds.
For instance, the study found that many parents don't know that1-year-olds can’t tell the difference between right and wrong, and often don'tcooperate or share when playing with other children.
The results are surprising because the parent who took part in the surveyhad young children, said lead author Dr. Heather Paradis, a pediatric (儿科的) follow at the University of Rochester MedicalCenter in New York. They were watching or had just watched their kids gothrough this development, and they were probably the most knowledge of anybody.
Paradis and her colleagues examined the results of a survey of parents — 98.6 percent of whom were mothers — of more than 10,000 9-month-old babies. Aspart of the survey, the parents were asked 11 questions designed to test theirknowledge of a baby’s development.
The researchers also examined what the parents said about theirinteraction with their children, and watched videotapes of how the parentstaught new things to their kid. One-third of those surveyed incorrectlyanswered four or more of the questions. Even when the researchers adjusted thestatistics to account for such factors as education level and income, thoseparents were still less likely to enjoy “healthy interaction” with theirchildren.
A lack of proper understanding of a child’s development can cause variousproblems, Paradis said. For example, she said, a mother might expect an18-month-old child to sit still for a doctor’s appointment, even thoughchildren that age are normally curious and like to wander around.
“A mom could misinterpret a child’s normal curiosity as intentionallybeing defiant (反抗的),and could reposed with harsh discipline, withdrawal of affection and repetitionof that pattern over time. “Paradis said. “That could hinder the child’spotential for full growth and development.”
One solution, Paradis, is for full pediatricians to take a more activerole in educating parents. “By improving knowledge of child development amongall parents, not just those who are at highest risk, there’s an opportunity to enhanceparent-child interaction, “ she said. “It can ultimately lead to betterparenting.”
16. Amajority of parents of babies know little about child development.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
17. Babiesof one year old have no sense of right or wrong.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
18. Theparents surveyed were asked 11 questions on child development.
A. Right B. Wrong C.Not mentioned
19. MostAmerican families are nuclear rather than extended ones.
A. Right B.Wrong C. Not mentioned
20. Mostmother with young children prefer to stay at home.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
21. Childrenof one and a half years old like to sit still.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
22. Parent-childinteraction can in no way be improved.
A. Right B.Wrong C. Not mentioned
1 You are likely aware thatseveral countries in West Africa are battling an Ebola outbreak. Ebola is adangerous and often lethal viral infection. Scientists believe that humanscontracted the virus by eating the meat of rare animals. It is now believedthat bats are the primary carries of the virus.
2 To date, there are onlythree major countries in West Africa experiencing a major outbreak: SierraLeone, Liberia and Guinea. However, other countries such as Nigeria havereported confirmed cases of Ebola within their borders.
3 Unless you recentlyvisited one of the three affected West countries you risk of contracting thevirus is virtually zero. Unlike other recent airborne virus outbreaks likeSARS, the Ebola virus can only be spread through direct contact with aninfected person. Specifically, Ebola is spread through contact with bodyfluids. Though, the virus is transmittable, only an infected person exhibitingsymptoms is communicable.
4 The signs and symptoms ofEbola are non-specific and patients typically exhibit them after a week ofcontracting the virus. Symptoms may appear as early as two days or as late as threeweeks after initial infection. Symptoms include disgust, weakness and stomachpain. More uncommon symptoms include chest pain, bleeding and sore throat.
5 Ebola is devastatingbecause of its ability to attack and replicate in every organ of the body. Thiscauses an overstimulation of the body’s inflammatory response, causing theflu-like symptoms. The virus also causes bleeding and impairs the body's normalclotting mechanism (凝血机制),making bleeding even more severe. Loss of blood volume and decreasedorgan perfusion (器官灌注）ultimately lead to organ failure and death.
6 The current outbreak isthe deadliest viral outbreak in over 35 years. While diseases such as themalaria (疟疾) are far more communicable, Ebola is one of the world’s most fatal viralinfections. Ebola's fatality rate exceeds that of SARS.
A. Am I at risk of contracting the virus?
B. Is the current outbreak the deadliest?
C. How do know if have contracted the virus?
D. What areas are currently affected?
E. What exactly does Ebola do to the body?
F. What caused the Ebola outbreak?
23. paragraph 2___D____
24. paragraph 3___A____
25. paragraph 4___C____
26. paragraph 5___ E ____
A. infected body fluids
B. against the outbreak severity
C. the mode of transmission
D. the initial days of being infected
E. three countries in West Africa
F. within a wide range of days
27. The initial Ebola outbreak was found in ___E____.
28. The difference between SARS and Ebola viruses lies in ___C____.
29. The symptoms of the patients after being infected may first appear ___F____.
30. The Ebola virus transmits by contact with ____A___.
New research published in the journal Current Biology has addedsignificantly to understanding of how the ear works, giving hope to millions ofdeaf and hard of hearing people.
The latest research, conducted by Dr. Jorg T. Albet, a Deafness ResearchUK research fellow at the UCL Ear Institute, together with scientists at theUniversity of Cologne, shows that fruit flies have ears which mechanicallyamplify sound signals in a remarkably similar way to the sensory (感觉的）cells found in the inner ear of vertebrates (脊椎动物) including humans. The finding means that the wealth of genetic techniques alreadyavailable to study the fruit fly can now be used to target how the ear works.
Dr. Albert says, “The biophysical parallels between the ways both fruit and humans convertsound into nerve signals are truly amazing. We may be allowed to hope thatthese mechanistic(机械学)similarities extend further down to the genes and molecules that bring abouthearing. But even if it finally should turn out that hearing flies relies ondifferent molecules than dose hearing in humans, the little fruit fly can helpus find answers to some key questions of hearing research and---what issomething even more important---will surely help us ask the right questions.”
The work is welcomed by Deafness Research UK, the country’s only medicalresearch chanty for deaf people. Vivienne Michael, chief executive of DeafnessResearch UK. says, “This is an important advance that paves the way toward aclear understanding of the genetics of deafness. The charity will continue tosupport cutting-edge(尖端的)research through its Fellowship programme at the UCL Ear institute and at othertop research centres in the UK to achieve our goal of securing audicalimprovements in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of all forms of hearingimpairment.
There are nine million deaf and hard of hearing people in the UK and inmost cases deafness results from loss of sensory cells in the inner ear knownas “hair”, cells. The cells can be imaged and lost through ageing, noise,genetic defects and certain drugs and, because the cells don’t regenerate, the result is progressive—and irreversible— hearing loss. Damage to these cells can also lead to tinnitus(耳鸣), which affects around five million people inthe UK.
31. A person who is hard of hearing is
A. not able to hear properly.
B. totally deaf from birth.
C. unwilling to listen to others.
D. ignorant of how the ear works.
32. Quite a number of genetic techniques have been used
A. to target how the ear works.
B. to study the fruit fly.
C. to stimulate sensory cells.
D. to amplify sound signals
33. Fruit files and humans share similarities in how they
A. ask and answer questions
B. pass on their genes
D. convert sound into never signals
34. Vivienne Michael from Deafness Research UK highly appreciates
A. the genetics of deafness.
B. the charity’s Fellowship programme.
C. improvements in treating hearing impairment.
D. the latest research conducted by Dr.Albert
35. Hearing loss caused by damage to the sensory cells
A. can affect five million people in the UK.
B. can be progressively repaired.
C. cannot be cured
D. cannot lead to tinnitus.
15 Million Americans Sufferfrom Social Anxiety Disorder
Social anxiety disorder preventssome 15 million Americans from leading normal social and romantic lives, a newsurvey finds.
The disorder leaves many isolated,ashamed and often misdiagnosed. Thirty-six percent of those with social anxietydisorder have symptoms for 10 years or more before seeking help, the AnxietyDisorders Association of America reports.
“Social anxiety disorder is whensomebody has an intense, persistent and irrational fear of social orperformance situations,” Jerilyn Ross, the association’s president and CEO,said during a teleconference Wednesday.
“The condition causes people toavoid common, everyday situations and even other people for fear of beingjudged or criticized or humiliated or embarrassing themselves,” Ross said.
Social anxiety disorder caninterfere with daily routines and job performance, Ross noted. “It also makesit very difficult for people to develop friends and romantic partnerships,” shesaid.
People with this disorder recognizetheir fear is excessive and irrational, Ross noted. “But they feel powerless todo anything about it,” she said.
Social anxiety disorder can startin the early teens, Dr. Mark H. Pollack, director of the Center for Anxiety andTraumatic Stress Disorders and a professor of psychiatry at Harvard MedicalSchool, said during the teleconference.
“This is a disorder that startsaffecting people early on1,” Pollack said. “The typical age of onset is earlyadolescence, age 12 or 13, and many individuals report a history of anxiety datingback to2 earlier childhood.”
The disorder also has physicalsymptoms, including heart palpitations, feelings that their throat will closeup3, sweating, blushing, faintness, trembling and stammering, Ross said.
Among people with the disorder, 75percent said the condition affected their ability to do normal activities. Inaddition, 69 percent said they didn’t want people to think they were crazy, and 58 percent said they wereembarrassed by their condition, Ross said.
However, when the condition is diagnosedand treated, many reported improvement in their lives. In fact，59 percent who were receiving treatment saidtreatment had a positive effect on their ability to have a romanticrelationship. In addition, 39 percent who had received treatment said knowingthat treatment can be successful aided their decision to get help, Ross noted.
36.Which of the following is NOT true of the people with social anxiety disorder?
A.They find a difficult to make friends.
B. They tend to criticize other people.
C.They are often isolated and ashamed.
D.They frequently fail to get timely treatment.
37.People with the disorder think that their fear is
C. beyond control
38.Usually the disorder starts to affect people when
A.they fall in loves.
B.they begin to work.
C.they get married.
D. they are in their early teens.
39.All the following are likely symptoms of the disorder EXCEPT
C. sore throat
40.The last paragraph indicates that treatment of the disorder
A.had no positive on those affected.
B.was unavailable to those affected.
C.was often rejected by those affected.
D. could improve the life of those affected
Young Adults Who ExerciseGet Higher IQ Scores
Young adults who are fit have ahigher IQ and are more likely to go on to university, reveals a major new studycarried out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
The results were recently publishedin the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The studyinvolved 1.2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born between1950 and 1976. The research group analyzed the results of both physical and IQtests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.
The study shows a clear linkbetween good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test. The strongestlinks are for logical thinking and verbal comprehension. But it is only fitnessthat plays a role in the results for the IQ test, and not strength. “Being fitmeans that you also have good heart and lung capacity and that your brain getsplenty of oxygen,” says Michael Nilsson, professor at the Sahlgrenska Academyand chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital. “This may be one ofthe reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness, but not with muscularstrength. We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important.”
By analyzing data for twins, theresearchers have been able to determine that it is primarily environmentalfactors and not genes that explain the link between fitness and a higher IQ.
“We have also shown that thoseyoungsters who improve their physical fitness between the ages of 15 and 18increase their cognitive performance,” says Maria Aberg, researcher at theSahlgrenska Academy and physician at Aby health centre. “This being the case,physical education is a subject that has an important place in schools, and isan absolute must if we want to do well in maths and other theoretical subjects.”
The researchers have also comparedthe results from fitness tests during national service with the socio-economicstatus of the men later in life. Those who were fit at 18 were more likely togo into higher education, and many secured more qualified jobs.
41. The researchers in this study come from
A. Aby health center.
B. the Swedish army
C. the National Academy of Sciences
D. a Swedish university and it’s affiliated hospital
42. Which of the following is an implication of physical fitness?
A. Brain size
B. Good lung capacity
C. Clear logical thinking
D. Muscular strength
43. By enhancing physical fitness, one could improve the following EXCEPT
A. cognitive performance
B. heart capacity
C. verbal comprehension
D. emotional behavior
44. The study finding include the following EXCEPT
A. growth factor are significant for a person’s IQ.
B. young adults who are fit get higher scores in IQ test.
C. youngsters who are fit will more likely get college education
D. young people who are muscular and strong have a higher IQ.
45. The word “secured” in the last paragraph is closest in meaning to
Hypertension Drugs Found toCut Risk of Stroke
Australian doctors declared Mondaythat a cocktail of simple antihypertensive drugs can lower the risk of patientssuffering a repeat stroke by more than a third. This is the result of theirresearch. The research, presented at a medical conference in Italy over theweekend, has been valued highly as a major breakthrough in stroke prevention.
Strokes kill 5 million people ayear, and more than 15 million suffer non-fatal strokes that often leave themwith useless limbs, slurred speech and other serious disabilities. One in fivestroke survivors goes on to have a second, often fatal, stroke within fiveyears of the first.
An international six-year study of6,100 patients directed from Sydney University found that by taking two bloodpressure-lowering drugs, the risk of secondary strokes can be reduced by up to40 per cent. Even taking one of the commonly available drugs can cut the riskby a third, the study said. The drugs are the diuretic indapamide and the ACEinhibitor1perindopril, better known by its brand name Coversyl. The combinationwas effective even in patients who did not have high blood pressure, theresearchers said. They even found that the risk of another stroke could be cutby three quarters among the one-in-ten patients who had suffered a cerebralhemorrhage, the worst type of stroke, where there is direct bleeding into thebrain.
Stephen McMahon, who presented theresearch at the Milan congress of the European Society of Hypertension, saidabout 50 million people were alive who had suffered at least one stroke. “Ifmost of those patients were able to get access to2 this treatment, it wouldresult in3 maybe the avoidance of half a million strokes a year,” the professortold Australia’s ABC Radio.
McMahon said doctors had long knownthat lowering the blood pressure of those with hypertension could help preventstrokes. “What we have shown for the first time is that it does not reallymatter what your blood pressure is4；if you have had a stroke, then lowering blood pressure will produce largebenefits, to begin with5—even for people whose blood pressure is average or below average,” hesaid.
McMahon said the Milan gatheringhad heralded the research as a “major breakthrough in the care of patients withstrokes —perhaps the biggest step forward that we have made in the last couple ofdecades”.
Fall down as you come onstage. That’san odd trick. Not recommended. But it saved the pianist Vladimir Feltsman whenhe was a teenager back in Moscow. The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovichtripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance panic, Mr. Feltsman said, “Allmy fright was gone. I already fell. What else could happen?”
Today, music schools are addressingthe problem of anxiety in classes that deal with performance techniques andcareer preparation. There are a variety of strategies that musicians can learnto fight stage fright and its symptoms: icy fingers, shaky limbs, racing heart,blank mind.
Teachers and psychologists offerwide-ranging advice, from basics like learning pieces inside out, to mentaldiscipline, such as visualizing a performance and taking steps to relax. Don’tdeny that you’re jittery，they urge; some excitement is natural, even necessary for dynamicplaying. And play in public often, simply for the experience.
Psychotherapist Diane Nicholssuggests some strategies for the moments before performance, “Take two deepabdominal breaths, open up your shoulders, then smile,’’ she says. “And not oneof these ‘pleasedon’t kill me’ smiles. Then choose three friendly faces in the audience, peopleyou would communicate with and make music to, and make eye contact with them.”She doesn’t want performers to think of the audience as a judge.
Extreme demands by mentors orparents are often at the root of stage fright，says Dorothy Delay, a well-known violin teacher. She tells other teachersto demand only what their students are able to achieve.
When Lynn Harrell was 20，he became the principal cellist of theCleverland Orchestra, and he suffered extreme stage fright. “There were timeswhen I got so nervous I was sure the audience could see my chest responding tothe throbbing. It was just total panic. I came to a point where I thought,‘ If I have to go through this to play music, Ithink I’m going to look for another job.”5 Recovery, he said, involveddeveloping humility-recognizing that whatever his talent, he was fallible，and that an imperfect concert was not adisaster.
It is not only young artists whosuffer, of course. The legendary pianist Vladimir Horowitz’s nerves werefamous. The great tenor Franco Corelli is another example. “They had to pushhim on stage,” Soprano Renata Scotto recalled.
Actually，success can make things worse. “In thebeginning of your career, when you’re scared to death, nobody knows who youare, and they don’t have any expectations,” Soprano June Anderson said. “There’sless to lose. Later on, when you’re known, people are coming to see you, andthey have certain expectations. You have a lot to lose.”
Anderson added，“I never stop being nervous until I’ve sung mylast note.”