The Operation of International Airlines国际航空公司的经营
International airlines have rediscovered the business traveler, the man or woman who regularly jets from country to country as part of the job. This does not necessarily mean that airlines ever abandoned their business travelers. Instead, companies like Lufthansa and Swissair1 would right argue that they have always catered best for the executive class passengers. But many airlines could be accused of concentrating too heavily in the recent past on attracting passengers by volume, often at the expense of the regular traveler. Too often, they have seemed geared for quantity rather than quality.
国际航空公司重新发现，商务游客经常定期乘坐国际航班，这甚至成为他们工作的一部分。这并不 一定意味着国际航空公司曾经忽视了商务乘客。相反，汉莎航空公司和瑞士航空公司声称 他们总是尽量 满足商务人士阶层的乘客。但是许多航空公司被指责说过去太注重由运载量吸引乘客，造成老顾客的流 失。公司经常为了数量而非质量进行调整。
Operating a major airline is essentially a matter of finding the right mix of passengers . The airlines need to fill up the back end of their wide-bodied jets with low fare passengers, without forgetting that the front end should be filled with people who pay substantially more for their tickets.
It is no coincidence that the two major airline bankruptcies were among the companies specializing in cheap flights. But low fares require consistently full aircraft to make flights economically viable, and in the recent recession the volume of traffic has not grown. Equally the large number of airlines jostling for the available passengers has created a huge excess of capacity. The net result of excess capacity and cut-throat competition driving down fares had been to push some airlines into collapse and leave many others hovering on the brink2.
两家主要的廉价航空公司的倒闭并不是巧合。但是低票价需要总是满机以使班机在经济方面可以生 存，在最近的萧条期运载量并没有增长。容量过剩和残酷的竞争引起票价下降，迫使一些 航空公司倒闭， 把许多别的公司推到倒闭的边缘。
Against this grim background, it is no surprise that airlines are turning increasingly towards the business travelers to improve their rates of return. They have invested much time and effort to establish exactly what the executive demands for sitting apart from the tourists.
High on the list of priorities is punctuality; an executive's time is money. In-flight service is another area where the airlines are jostling for the executive's attention. The free drinks and headsets and better food are all part of the lure.
Another development has been the accent of seating arrangements. Regular travelers have become well versed in the debate about seat pitch--the amount of room between each passenger. And first-class passengers are now offered sleeperette seats, which, for long journeys, make it possible to snatch a proper night's sleep. Sleeperettes have proved so popular that they will soon become universal in the front end of most aircraft.
The airlines are also trying to improve things on the ground. Executive lounges are commonplace and intended to make the inevitable waiting between flights a little more bearable. Luggage handling is being improved. Regrettably, there is little the airlines can do to speed up the boring immigration and Customs process, which manages to upset and frustrate passengers of all classes in every continent.
航空公司还试图改善地面服务。商务人员休息室变得很寻常了，这样乘客们等待航班的时间可以变 得更好过一些。行李处理服务也改善了。不过遗憾的是，在加快烦琐的入境通关手续方面， 航空公司能 做的很有限。各大洲各阶层的乘客们只能继续厌烦沮丧了。
Although it is the airlines' intention to attract executive passengers from their rivals, the airlines themselves would nonetheless like to change one bad habit of this kind of traveler—the expensive habit of booking a flight and then failing to turn up. The practice is particularly widespread in Europe, where businessmen frequently book return journeys home one on several flights.
尽管航空公司的目的是从它们的竞争对手中吸引商务乘客，航空公司将尽力改变这类乘客的坏习惯 ——预定昂贵的机票却没有乘坐。这种现象在欧洲尤为广泛，商务人士常常同时在几个航 班预定返程机票。
1. Lufthansa and Swissair ：(德国)汉莎航空公司和瑞士航空公司
2. …push some airlines into collapse and leave many others hovering on the brink . ：……迫使一些航空公司倒闭，把许多别的公司推到倒闭的边缘。
1. According to the passage, in operating airlines it is essential to .
A) keep in mind the need of the executives only
B) satisfy the need of the low fare passengers at the expense of the executives
C) try to attract as many passengers as possible by reducing fares
D) cater to the need of passengers sitting at both ends of the jets
1. D 本题的答案可以再文章的第二段里找到。这一段第一句话讲得很清楚，经营一家大的航空公司的关键是找到“the right mix of passengers”， 后面一句话更明确地说宽体客机的后部( 即一般乘客乘坐的经济舱)和前部(即头等舱和公务舱)都要设法坐满。
2. The following are all mentioned as reasons why the airlines are having a hard time EXCEPT that .
A) the tourist industry is experiencing an all-time low
B) there is no increase in the number of passengers
C) there are more seats on the planes than needed
D) the competition between airlines is strong
2. A 在第三段里作者谈到了航空业所面临的困境，提到“in the recent recession the volume of traffic has not grown. Equally the large number of airlines jostling for the available passengers has created a huge excess of capacity”, 包括了 B、C、D 三个选项中所说的情况，唯独没有具体降到旅游业的状况。
3. The improvements the airlines attempt at include all the following EXCEPT .
A) making their seats more comfortable
B) providing better food during flights
C) showing more movies during the long flights
D) offering sleeperettes to first-class passengers
3. C 文章的第五段和第六段，作者讲了航空公司所做的种种努力，其中没有提到要多放映电影。
4. There is not much the airlines can do when it comes to .
A) making sure the departures are not delayed
B) the efficient handling of luggage
C) speeding up customs procedure
D) the improvement of the condition of waiting lounges
4. C 文章的第五段到第七段里，作者谈到了航空公司能做的改进，以及他们不能做的改进，第七段的 最后一句清楚地讲明，人人都厌烦的进关手续繁琐问题的解决是航空公司力所不能及的。
5. Which of the following is a bad habit of the executive passengers that frustrates the airlines?
A) They do not book their seats in advance
B) They do not sit on the seats they are supposed to take
C) They do not travel on the flight they have booked
D) They do not pay in advance for the seats they book
5. C 答案在最后一段里可以找到。商界人士常常同时在几个航班预定返程机票。