1 You are likely aware that several countries in West Africa are battlingan Ebola outbreak. Ebola is a dangerous and often lethal viral infection.Scientists believe that humans contracted the virus by eating the meat of rareanimals. It is now believed that bats are the primary carries of the virus.
2 To date, there are only three major countries in West Africaexperiencing a major outbreak: Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea. However, othercountries such as Nigeria have reported confirmed cases of Ebola within theirborders.
3 Unless you recently visited one of the three affected West countriesyou risk of contracting the virus is virtually zero. Unlike other recent airbornevirus outbreaks like SARS, the Ebola virus can only be spread through directcontact with an infected person. Specifically, Ebola is spread through contactwith body fluids. Though, the virus is transmittable, only an infected personexhibiting symptoms is communicable.
4 The signs and symptoms of Ebola are non-specific and patients typicallyexhibit them after a week of contracting the virus. Symptoms may appear asearly as two days or as late as three weeks after initial infection. Symptomsinclude disgust, weakness and stomach pain. More uncommon symptoms includechest pain, bleeding and sore throat.
5 Ebola is devastating because of its ability to attack and replicate inevery organ of the body. This causes an overstimulation of the body’sinflammatory response, causing the flu-like symptoms. The virus also causesbleeding and impairs the body's normal clotting mechanism (凝血机制), making bleeding even more severe. Loss ofblood volume and decreased organ perfusion (器官灌注)ultimately lead to organ failure and death.
6 The current outbreak is the deadliest viral outbreak in over 35 years.While diseases such as the malaria (疟疾) are far more communicable, Ebola is one of the world’s most fatal viralinfections. Ebola's fatality rate exceeds that of SARS.
A. Am I at risk of contracting the virus?
B. is the current outbreak the deadliest?
C. How do know if have contracted the virus?
D. What areas are currently affected?
E. What exactly does Ebola do to the body?
F. What caused the Ebola outbreak?
23. paragraph 2___D____
24. paragraph 3___A____
25. paragraph 4___C____
26. paragraph5___ E ____
A. infected body fluids
B. against the outbreak severity
C. the mode of transmission
D. the initial days of being infected
E. three countries in West Africa
F. within a wide range of days
27. The initial Ebola outbreak was found in ___E____.
28. The difference between SARS and Ebola viruses lies in ___C____.
29. The symptoms of the patients after being infected may first appear ___F____.
30. The Ebola virus transmits by contact with ____A___.
New US Plan for DiseasePrevention
Urging Americans to takeresponsibility for their health, Health and Human Services Secretary TommyThompson on Tuesday launched a $15 million program to try to encouragecommunities to do more to prevent chronic diseases like heart disease, cancerand diabetes.
The initiative highlights the costof chronic diseases —the leading causes of death in the United States — and outlines ways that people can prevent them, including better dietand increased exercise.
“Inthe United States today, 7 of 10 deaths and the vast majority of seriousillness, disability and health care costs are caused by chronic diseases.” the Health and Human Services Department saidin a statement.
The causes are often behavioral — smoking, poor eating habits and a lack ofexercise.
“Iam convinced that preventing disease by promoting better health is a smartpolicy choice for our future.” Thompson told a conference held to launch the initiative.
“Ourcurrent health care system is not structured to deal with the escalating costsof treating diseases that are largely preventable through changes in ourlifestyle choices.”
Thompson said heart disease andstrokes will cost the country more than $351 billion in 2003. “These leading causes of death for men and womenare largely preventable, yet we as a nation are not taking the steps necessaryfor us to lead healthier, longer lives.” he said.
The $15 million is slated to go tocommunities to promote prevention, pushing for changes as simple as buildingsidewalks to encourage people to walk more.
Dailyexercise such as walking can prevent and even reverse heart disease anddiabetes, and prevent cancer and strokes.
The money will also go to communityorganizations, clinics and nutritionists who/are being encouraged to worktogether to educate people at risk of diabetes about what they can do toprevent it and encourage more cancer screening.
The American Cancer Societyestimates that half of all cancers can be caught by screening, including Paptests for cervical cancer, mammograms for breast cancer, colonoscopies, andprostate checks.
If such cancers were all caught byearly screening, the group estimates that the survival rate for cancer wouldrise to 95 percent.
Dangers Await Babies withAltitude
Women who live in the world’shighest communities tend to give birth to under-weight babies, a new studysuggests. These babies may grow into adults with a high risk of heart diseaseand strokes.
Research has hinted that newbornsin mountain communities are lighter than average. But it wasn’t clear whetherthis is due to reduced oxygen levels at high altitude or because their mothersare under-nourished — many people who live at high altitudes are relativelypoor compared with those living lower down.
To find out more, Dino Giussani andhis team at Cambridge University studied the records of 400 births in Boliviaduring 1997 and 1998. The babies were born in both rich and poor areas of twocities: La Paz and Santa Cruz. La Paz is the highest city in the world, at 3.65kilometers above sea level, while Santa Cruz is much lower, at 0.44 kilometers.
Sure enough, Giussani found thatthe average birthweight of babies in La Paz was significantly lower than in SantaCruz. This was true in both high and low-income families. Even babies born topoor families in Santa Cruz were heavier on average than babies born to wealthyfamilies in lofty La Paz. “We were very surprised by this result,” saysGiussani.
The results suggest that babiesborn at high altitude are deprived of2 oxygen before birth.“This may trigger the release or suppression of hormones that regulate growthof the unborn child.” says Giussani.
His team also found thathigh-altitude babies tended to have relatively larger heads compared with theirbodies. This is probably because a fetus starved of oxygen will send oxygenatedblood to the brain in preference to the rest of the body5.
Giussani wants to find out if suchbabies have a higher risk of disease in later life. People born in La Paz mightbe prone to heart trouble in adulthood, for example. Low birthweight is a riskfactor for coronary heart disease. And newborns with a high ratio of head sizeto body weight are often predisposed to high blood pressure and strokes inlater life.
41.What does the new study discover?
A.Babies born to wealthy families are heavier.
B. Women living at high altitude tend to give birth to underweightbabies.
C.Newborns in cities are lighter than average.
D.Low-altitude babies have a high risk of heart disease in later life
42. Giussan and his team are sure that ______
A. babies born in La Paz are on average lighter thanin Santa Cruz
B. people living in La Paz are poorer that those in Santa Cruz
C. the birthweight of babies born to wealthy families is above average
D.mothers in La Paz are commonly under-nourished
43. It can be inferred from what Giussan says in Paragraph 4 that
A. the finding was unexpected
B. he was very tired
C. the study took longer than expected
D. he was surprised to find low-income families in La Paz
44. The results of the study indicate the reason for the birth ofunderweight babies
A. lack of certain nutrition
B. poverty of their mothers
C. different family background
D. reduction of oxygen levels
45. It can be learnt from the last paragraph that ______
A. high-altitude babies tend to have high blood pressure in their laterlife
B. underweight babies have a shorter life span
C. babies born to poor families lack certain hormones before birth.
D.newborns in wealthy families have larger heads compared with their bodies
The death rate due to cancer of thelungs has increased more than800 percent in males and has more than doubled infemales during the last 25years. It is considerably higher in urban andindustrial areas than in rural districts. There are many possible causes, butit is still controversial which are most blameworthy. Those factors which havebeen mentioned most frequently are the presence of foreign particles and otherirritants in the air (smoke particles, smog, exhaust fumes), and the smoking ofcigarettes and cigars.
Numerous studies have demonstrateda striking correlation between the death rate from lung cancer and smokinghabits. Among heavy smokers — 21 to 30 cigarettes per day — the mortality rate from lung cancer is nearly 17 times the rate fromnonsmokers. It is expected the death rate among women will increase as thepresent high rate of smoking among women has its effect.
Sometimes cases of lung cancer arediscovered at the time an x-ray is taken for the purpose of detectingtuberculosis. Too often, however, a current emphasis upon the danger ofexposure to radiation1 from X-ray machines can frighten people away fromroutine chest X-rays and thus prevent an early diagnosis of lung cancer. Earlydetection is absolutely essential if any possibility of cure is to bemaintained. Modern X-ray machines in competent hands pose such slight danger,at least to those over 40 years of age, that this would be much more thanoffset by the advantages of discovering a tumor while it is small enough to becompletely removed.
A common form of lung cancer isbronchogenic carcinoma，so-calledbecause the malignancy originates in5 a bronchus. The tumor may grow until thebronchus is blocked, cutting off6 the supply of air to that lung. The lung thencollapses, and the secretions trapped in the lung spaces become infected, with aresulting pneumonia or the formation of a lung abscess. Such a lung cancer canalso spread to cause secondary growths in the lymph nodes of the chest and neckas well as in the brain and other parts of the body. The only treatment thatoffers a possibility of cure, before secondary growths have had time to form,is to remove the lung completely. This operation is called pneumonectomy.
Malignant tumors of the stomach,the breast, the prostate gland8and other organs may spread to the lungs,causing secondary growths.
Eating Potatoes Gives YourImmune System a Boost
Eating potatoes is not only goodfor bowel health, but also for the whole immune system, especially when theycome in the form of a potato salad or eaten cold. In a study on an animalmodel, researchers in Spain found that pigs fed large quantities of raw potatostarch (RPS)1 not only had a healthier bowel, but also decreased levels ofwhite blood cells, such as leucocytes and lymphocytes in their blood. Whiteblood cells are produced as a result of inflammation or disease, generally whenthe body is challenged.
The general down-regulation ofleucocytes observed by the Spanish researchers suggests an overall beneficialeffect, a generally more healthy body. The reduction in leukocyte levels wasabout 15 percent. Lower lymphocyte levels are also indicative of reduced levelsof inflammation, but the observed reduction in both lymphocyte density andlymphocyte apoptosis is surprising.
In what was the longest study ofits kind, pigs were fed RPS over 14 weeks to find out the effect of starch onbowel health. “Theuse of raw potato starch in this experiment is designed to simulate the effectsof a diet high in resistant starch," said study leader Jose FranciscoPerez at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain.
Humans do not eat raw potatoes, butthey do eat a lot of foods that contain resistant starch, such as cold boiledpotatoes, legumes, grains, green bananas, pasta and cereals. About 10 percentof the starch eaten by human is resistant starch - starch that is not digestedin the small intestine and so is shunted into the large intestine where itferments. Starch consumption is thought to reduce the risk of large bowelcancer and may also have an effect on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Immunology expert Lena Oman’s teampreviously found that the overall lymphocyte levels do not vary for IBSpatients, but that lymphocytes are transferred from the peripheral blood to thegut, which support the hypothesis of IBS being at least partially allinflammatory disorder. She says the decrease in lymphocytes observed by theSpanish is therefore interesting, and a diet of resistant starch may be worthtrying in IBS patients. Oman is currently at the Department of Internal Medicine,Goteborg University, Sweden. The study is published in the Journal Chemistryand Industry, the magazine of the SCI6.