1. I will not tolerate that sort ofbehavior in my class
2. She showed a natural aptitude for thework.
3. Most people find rejection hard to accept.
4. The organization was bold enough to facethe press.
5. They are locked in mortal combat.
6. We were attracted by the lure of quickmoney.
7. The procedures were perceived as complex andless transparent.
8. The Stock Exchange is in turmoil followinga huge wave of selling.
9. He believes that Europe must change or it will perish.
10. There was a simultaneous trial takingplace in the next building.
11. They promote assimilation of ethnicgroups into the main-stream culture.
12. A salesman’s cardinal rule is tosatisfy customers.
13. I must compliment you on yourhandling of a very difficult situation.
14. We lived for years in a perpetualstate of fear.
15. The starving children were a patheticsight.
Lack of Oxygen Delayed the Rise of Animalson Earth
Scientists have long speculated as to why animal speciesdidn’t flourish sooner, once sufficient oxygen covered the Earth’s surface.Animals began to prosper at the end of the Proterozoic period, about 800million years ago — but what about the billion-year stretch before that, whenmost researchers think there also was plenty of oxygen?
Well, it seems the air wasn’t so great then, after all.
Ina study published Oct. 31 in Science, Yale researcherNoah Planavsky and his colleagues found that oxygen levels during the “boringbillion” period were only 0.1% of what they are today. In other words, Earth’satmosphere couldn’t have supported a diversity of creatures, no matter whatgenetic advancements were poised to occur.
“There is no question that genetic and ecologicalinnovation must ultimately be behind the rise of animals, but it is equallyunavoidable that animals need a certain level of oxygen,” said Planavsky,co-lead author of the research along with Christopher Reinhard of the GeorgiaInstitute of Technology. “We’re providing the first evidence that oxygen levelswere low enough during this period to potentially prevent the rise of animals.”
The scientists found their evidence by analyzing chromium(Cr) isotopes in ancient sediments from China, Australia, Canada, and theUnited States. Chromium is found in the Earth’s continental crust, and chromiumoxidation is directly linked to the presence of free oxygen in the atmosphere.
Specifically, the team studied samples deposited inshallow, iron-rich ocean areas, near the shore. They compared their data withother samples taken from younger locales known to have higher levels of oxygen.
Oxygen’s role in controlling the first appearance ofanimals has long vexed scientists.“We were missing the right approach untilnow,” Planavsky said. “Chromium gave us the proxy.” Previous estimates put theoxygen level at 40% of today’s conditions during pre-animal times, leaving openthe possibility that oxygen was already plentiful enough to support animallife.
In the new study, the researchers acknowledged thatoxygen levels were “highly dynamic” in the early atmosphere, with the potentialfor occasional spikes. However, they said, “It seems clear that there is afirst-order difference in the nature of Earth surface Cr cycling” before andafter the rise of animals.
“If we are right, our results will really change howpeople view the origins of animals and other complex life, and theirrelationships to the co-evolving environment,” said co-author Tim Lyons of theUniversity of California-Riverside. “This could be a game changer.”
Funding sources for the research included the NASAExobiology Program and the National Science Foundation’s Earth-Life Transitionsprogram, awarded to Planavsky, Reinhard, and Lyons.
The other members of the research team included XiangliWang, a postdoctoral fellow at Yale; Thomas Johnson, of the University ofIllinois; Danielle Thomson, of Carleton University; Peter McGold rick, of theUniversity of Tasmania; and Woodward Fischer, of the California Institute ofTechnology.
16. The study discovered the rise of animals occurred earlier than theProterozoicperiod.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
17. Many researchers believe the oxygen level was high during pre-animaltimes.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
18. The team was funded by several research institutes.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
19. Genetic advancements triggered the rise of animals.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
20. The samples studied in the research were collected in ocean areas.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
21. The study revealed that chromium found in Earth’s continental crustremained stablebefore and after the rise of animals.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
22. Tim Lyons liked to play computer games in his spare time.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
First Image-recognition Software
1.Dartmouth researchers and their colleagues have createdan artificial 1 ,software that uses photos to locate documents on the Internetwith far greater than ever before.
2.The new system, which was tested on photos and is nowbeing applied to videos, shows for the first time that a machine learningalgorithm (运算法则)or ,ma9e I recognition and retrieval is accurate andefficient enough to improve large-scale , document searches online. The systemuses pixel (像素)data in images and potentially video — rather than justtext — to locate documents. It learns to recognize the pixels associated with asearch phrase by studying the results from text-based image search engines. Theknowledge gleaned (收集) from those results can then be applied to other photoswithout tags or captions making for more accurate document search results.
3."Over the last 30 years," says AssociateProfessor Lorenzo Torresani, a co-author of the study, "the Web hasevolved from a small collection of mostly text documents to a modern, massive,fast-growing multimedia dataset, where nearly every page includes multiplepictures or videos. When a person looks at a Web page, he immediately gets thegist (主旨)of it by looking at the pictures in it. Yet,surprisingly, all existing popular search engines, such as Google or Bing,strip away the information contained in the photos and use exclusively the textof Web pages to perform the document retrieval. Our study is the first to showthat modern machine vision systems are accurate and efficient enough to makeeffective use of the information contained in image pixels to improve documentsearch."
4.The researchers designed and tested a machine visionsystem — a type of artificial intelligence that allows computers to learnwithout being explicitly programmed — that extracts semantic (语义的) information fromthe pixels of photos in Web pages. This information is used to enrich the descriptionof the HTML page used by search engines for document retrieval. The researcherstested their approach using more than 600 search queries (查询)on a database of 50million Web pages. They selected the text-retrieval search engine with the bestperformance and modified it to make use of the additional semantic informationextracted by their method from the pictures of the Web pages. They found thatthis produced a 30 percent improvement in precision over the original searchengine purely based on text.
A. Popularity of the new system
B. Publication of the new discovery
C. Function of the new system
D. Artificial intelligence software created
E. Problems of the existing search engines
F. Improvement in document retrieval
23. Paragraph 1 __D__
24. Paragraph 2 __C__
25. Paragraph 3 __E__
26. Paragraph 4 __F__
A. information in images
B. current popular search engines
C. using photos
D. machine vision systems
E. document search
F. description of the HTML page
27. The new system does document retrieval by __C__.
28. The new system is expected to improve precision in __E__.
29. When performing document retrieval the existing search engines ignore__A__
30. The new system was found more effective in document search than the __B__
Better Solar Energy Systems: More Heat, More Light
Solar photovoltaicthermal energy systems, or PVTs, generate both heat and electricity, but untilnow they haven’t been very good at the heat-generating part compared to astand-alone solar thermal collector. That’s because they operate at lowtemperatures to cool crystalline silicon solar cells, which lets the silicongenerate more electricity but isn’t a very efficient way to gather heat.
That’s a problem ofeconomics. Good solar hot-water systems can harvest much more energy than asolar-electric system at a substantially lower cost. And it’s also a spaceproblem: photovoltaic cells can take up all the space on the roof, leavinglittle room for thermal applications.
In a pair ofstudies, Joshua Pearce, an associate professor of materials science andengineering, has devised a solution in the form of a better PVT made with adifferent kind of silicon. His research collaborators are Kunal Girotra fromThin Silicon in California and Michael Pathak and Stephen Harrison from Queen’sUniversity, Canada.
Most solar panelsare made with crystalline silicon, but you can also make solar cells out ofamorphous silicon, commonly known as thin-film silicon. They don’t create asmuch electricity, but they are lighter, flexible, and cheaper. And, becausethey require much less silicon, they have a greener footprint. Unfortunately,thin-film silicon solar cells are vulnerable to some bad-news physics in theform of the Staebler-Wronski effect.
“That means thattheir efficiency drops when you expose them to light— pretty much the worstpossible effect for a solar cell,” Pearce explains, which is one of the reasonsthin-film solar panels make up only a small fraction of the market.
However, Pearce andhis team found a way to engineer around the Staebler-Wronski effect byincorporating thin-film silicon in a new type of PVT. You don’t have to cooldown thin-film silicon to make it work. In fact, Pearce’s group discovered thatby heating it to solar-thermal operating temperatures, near the boiling pointof water, they could make thicker cells that largely overcame theStaebler-Wronski effect. When they applied the thin-film silicon directly to asolar thermal energy collector, they also found that by baking the cell once aday, they boosted the solar cell’s electrical efficiency by over 10 percent.
31. PVTs are not efficient in
A. creating electricity.
B. cooling silicon solar cells.
C. generating heat.
D. powering solar thermal collectors.
32. One of the problems PVTs have is that
A. their thermal applications are costly.
B. they are too expensive to afford.
C. it is hard to fix them on the roof.
D. they occupy too much space.
33. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an advantage of thin-filmsilicon solar cells?
A. They are flexible.
B. They are less expensive.
C. They are electrically efficient.
D. They are environment friendly.
34. Thin-film solar panels do not sell well on market because
A. they do not work well if exposed to light.
B. their advantages are not well-recognized.
C. they need improving in appearance.
D. they are not advertised.
35 Which of the following statements is true?
A. Newtechniques have been developed to produce thin-film silicon.
B. Thin-film silicon works efficiently at low temperature.
C. Thin-film silicon's electrical efficiency improves when heated up.
D. Anew material enlarging the Staebler-WronsKi effect has been created.
Face Masks May Not Protect from Super-Flu
If a super-flustrikes, face masks may not protect you. Whether widespread use of masks willhelp, or harm, during the next worldwide flu outbreak is a question thatresearchers are studying furiously. No results have come from their maskresearch yet.
However, thegovernment says people should consider wearing them certain stations anyway,just in case.
But it's a questionthe public keeps asking while the government is making preparations for thenext flu pandemic (大流行).So the Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) came up with preliminary guidelines."We don’t want People wearing them everywhere," said the CDC. Theoverall recommendation really is to avoid exposure.”
When that is notpossible, the guidelines say you should consider wearing a simple surgical maskif you are in one of the three following situations. First, you’re healthy andcan’t avoid going to a crowded place. Second, you're sick and think you mayhave close contact with the healthy, such as a family member checking on you.Third, you live with someone who's sick and thus might be in the early stagesof infection, but still need to go out.
Influenza pandemicscan strike when the easy-to-mutate (变异)flu virus shiftsto a strain(菌株)that people never haveexperienced. Scientists cannot predict when the next pandemic will arrive,although concern is rising that the Asian bird flu might trigger one if itstarts spreading easily from person to person.
During the flupandemic, you should protect yourself. Avoid crowds, and avoid close contactwith the sick unless you must care for someone. Why aren’t masks added to thisself-protection list? Because they can help trap virus-laden droplets flyingthrough the air with a cough or sneeze. Simple surgical masks only filter thelarger droplets (飞沫). Besides, the CDC isafraid masks may create a false sense of security. Perhaps someone who shouldhave stayed home would don(戴)an ill-fittingmask and hop on the subway instead.
Nor does flu onlyspread through the air. Say someone covers a sneeze with his or her hand, thentouches a doorknob or subway pole. If you touch that spot next and then putgermy hands on your nose or mouth, you’ve been exposed. It’s harder to rub yournose while wearing a mask, so your face may get pretty sweaty under masks. Youreach under to wipe that sweat, and may transfer germs caught on the outside ofthe mask straight to the nose. These are the problems face masks may create fortheir users.
Whether peopleshould or should not use face masks still remains a question. The generalpublic has to wait patiently for the results of the mask research scientistsare still doing.
36. What is the passage mainly about?
A. Widespread use of face masks.
B. Possibility of a worldwide flu outbreak
C. New discoveries of a face mask research.
D. Effectiveness of wearing face masks
37. The CDC suggests that people
A. stay alone when being sick.
B. wear face masks when going to a crowded place.
C. wear face masks wherever possible.
D. remain at home if living with someone who’s sick.
38. The word "that" in Paragraph 3 refers to
A. making preparations
B. avoiding exposure
C. coming up with guidelines
D. wearing face masks everywhere.
39. Which of the following statements is true?
A. Scientists warn the next flu is coming soon.
B. Asian bird flu is spreading easily from person to person.
C. Masks protect people because they keep viruses away.
D. Masks are not effective if a flu strikes.
40. One of the concerns the CDC has is that
A. masks may give people a wrong assumption of being safe.
B. the sick may not wear masks and go out.
C. fluvims may spread via public transportation.
D. healthy people may not know how to protect themselves.
What’s Killing the Bats
First it was bees. Now itis bats. Biologists in America are working hard to discover the cause of themysterious deaths of tens of thousands of bats in the northeastern part of thecountry. Most of the bats affected are the common little brown bats (Myotislucifugus,) but other species, such as the long-eared bat, the small-footedhat, the eastern pipistrelle , andthe Indiana bat have also been affected. In some caves, more than 90 percent ofthe bat populations have died.
One possibility isdisease. A white fungus (真菌）known as fusarium has been found on the noses of bothliving and dead bats. However, scientists don't know If the fungus is theprimary cause of death, a secondary cause of death, or not a cause at all, butthe result of some other conditions.
Another possible cause isa lack of food. For example, bats typically eat a large number of moths (蛾),and in some states suchas New York, the number of moths has been declining in recent years. If batscan't eat enough food, they starve to death.
Still other scientistsbelieve that global warming is to blame. Warmer temperatures in recent yearshave been waking up hibernating (冬眠）bats earlier than usual. If bats break their hibernationat the wrong time, they might not find their expected food sources. The weathermight also turn cold again and weaken or kill the bats.
Scientists might not agreeon the causes of the bat die-off, but they do agree on the consequences. Batsare an important predator of mosquitoes; a single brown bat can eat 1,000 ormore insects in an hour. They also eat beetles and other insects that damageplant crops. If there aren't enough bats, damage will be great from the insectsthey eat While bats live a long time for their size 一 the little brown bat canlive for more than 30 years 一 a female bat has only one baby per year, so batpopulations grow slowly. Many bat species in the United States are alreadyprotected or endangered.
How can you help? Do notdisturb sleeping or nesting bats. If you discover bate that seem to be sick orthat are dead, contact your local Fish& Wildlife Department with thedetails. However, be careful not to touch the animals.
36. What is the main idea of this passage?
A. All species of bats in North America are dying.
B. Scientists already know the cause of the deaths of bats
C. The bat deaths are a serious problem.
D. There are many possible causes of the deaths of bats.
37. What does the first sentence in Paragraph 1 mean?
A. Bees have been dying mysteriously.
B. The first article on the website is about bees.
C. Bees usually die before bats.
D. It was bees that caused the deaths of bats.
38. The word "pipistrelle" in Paragraph 1 refers to
A. a kind of fungus.
B. an area in the U.S.
C. a special cave.
D. a kind of bat.
39. The "moths" in Paragraph 3 are taken as an example of
A. diseases that kill bats.
B. Insects that bats eat.
C. animals that have diseases.
D. bat species that are starving to death.
40. What is the purpose of the last paragraph?
A. To get people to stop killing bats.
B. To hire workers for the Fish & Wildlife Department.
C. To ask people not to touch dead bats.
D. To tell the public how to help bats.
Gorillas have aword for it
Kokois the firstgorilla to have been taught sign language (a way of communicating by usinghands and fingers rather than speech). With a vocabulary of more than1000words, she is the first to prove we share a world with other intelligent beingswho feel emotions, look forward to celebrations and also have a sense of humour.
The30-year study ofKoko has redefined science's concept of gorilla intelligence.__________(46)Butwhat had not been recognised by the scientific community was that gorillas havethe ability to learn a language and have complex emotions.
Kokolives in theSanta Cruz mountains in North America, in a wooded spot overlooking avalley. __________(47) She has a barrel on which she likes to sit when'talking' to humans - gorillas feel more secure when they can look down onothers - while her toys are spread everywhere. In addition she has an outsideenclosure where she spends her days when it is not raining.
It is herconversations with her teacher, Dr Penny Patterson, that are inspiring. Pennyexplains: ‘The reality of my discovery is that our abilities as humans, ourskills, sensibilities and emotions are very similar to the great apes. __________(48)
When she beganteaching Koko sign language, placing the little fingers of the one-year-oldgorilla into the correct positions for 'drink', 'eat', 'more', and rewardingher with food, Dr Patterson had no idea how quickly Koko would learn.“At first,it seemed Koko was using sign language as a tool to get something,”saysPatterson. 'It became the kind of reward system that you could expect of a cator a dog. But early in her training, she began to combine signs that made methink she was capable of more.’__________ (49) For example, she didn't know theword for 'ring', so she combined the signs for ‘finger’ and 'bracelet' to expressit.
Dr Pattersoncontinues: ‘Koko loves babies and young people. And when she is asked whatgorillas like best, she always says "Gorilla love eat, good’’.' One ofPatterson's favourite stories demonstrates Koko's sense of humour. __________(50)
When Pattersonasked her what she would like for her 11th birthday, Koko signed that shewanted a cat. The story of Koko’s cat enabled Patterson to learn more about herstudent: the cat was hit by a car and Patterson had to break the news to Koko,who signed 'cry, sad, frown'. Then, once alone, Patterson heard Koko make thegorilla's distress call: a loud series of hoots.
From the age ofthree, Koko shared her accommodation with Michael who was intended as a mate.However,
Michael diedsuddenly two years ago of a heart attack. ‘Koko went into a depression followingMichael's death,’ says Patterson. ‘She would sit for hours with her head hunglow looking upset.'
Dr Patterson asked her if she was looking forward tomoving to Hawaii, where Patterson is raising money to build a gorilla refuge.Koko signed ‘Yes', provided she could have curtains in her new home!
A. When a visitor asked her to show him something scary, she held up a mirror to his face!
C. According to some scientists, genetically there is only a 2% difference between gorillas and humans: we share the same blood type, have the same number of hairs per square inch and also the same temperament.
D. She has her own home, with curtains, and a nest of blankets, which is her bed, in one corner.
E. What we have learnt is that gorillas are more complex than we ever imagined.'
F. Now Koko is so proficient in sign language that if she doesn't know a word she invents one.
When a visitor asked her to show him something scary, she held up a mirror to his face!
A University ofNebraska professor has developed robotic cones and barrels. These robotic conesand barrels can move out of the way, or into ______ (51), from computercommands made miles away. They can even be programmed to move on their own1 atany particular part of the day, said Shane Fanitor, an assistant professor ofmechanical engineering at Nebraska.
For example, ifworkers arrived at 6 am, the cones could move from the side of the highway toblock ______ (52) the lane at that time. And they can return to the ______ (53)place at the end of the day. “It just seems like a very good application forrobots,” Farritor said. “The robotic cones would also help ______ (54) peoplefrom hazardous jobs on the highway putting barrels and cones into place,”Fanitor said in a report oh his creation.
Work on the ideabegan in 2002 using a National Academy of Sciences grant. The ______ (55) allowedFarritor to work on the project with graduate students2 at Nebraska and hisassistant Steve Goddard.
The robots areplaced at the bottom of the cones and barrels and are ______ (56) enough not togreatly change the appearance of the construction aides. “It would look exactlythe same,” Farritor said. “______ (57) there’s a kind of rubbery, black base tothem. Were place that ______ (58) a robot.
Farritor has talkedwith officials from the Nebraska Department of Roads about how the robots wouldbe most ______ (59) to what they3 might need.
The robots couldcome in handy4 following a slow-moving maintenance operation, like painting astripe on a road or moving asphalt, ______ (60) now the barrels have to bepicked up and moved as the operation ______ (61). “That way you don’t haveto block off a 10-mile strip forthe operation,5” Fanitor said.
______ (62) prototypeshave been made, they are not in use anywhere. Farritor said he has ______(63) for apatent and is considering what to do next. He is thinking aboutstarting a small business. He is also thinking about ______ (64) therobots to roads departments and others across the country who7 may ______(65) from them.
51. ( )
A. work B. place C. order D. turn
52. ( )
A. block B. cut C. set D. turn
53. ( )
A. clean B. important C. entire D. original
54. ( )
A. empty B. observe C. remove D. instruct
55. ( )
A. idea B. report C. demand D. fund
56. ( )
A. helpful B. beautiful C. small D. huge
57. ( )
A. Kindly B. Normally C. Greatly D. Strangely
58. ( )
A. at B. on C. in D. with
59. ( )
A. related B. typical C. useful D. visible
60. ( )
A. why B. where C. when D. what
61. ( )
A. proceeds B. functions C. finishes D. improves
62. ( )
A. If B. While C. Since D. Because
63. ( )
A. applied B. asked C. called D. argued
64. ( )
A. saving B .marketing C. moving D. devising
65. ( )
A. benefit B. protect C. learn D. inspire